Hog/Swine Business: Record Keeping Part 1

Keeping a record for finishers is necessary in monitoring growth performance. Many recording systems are develop by farmers, pig breeding companies, feed milling companies, universities, colleges and other institutions. Most of them are readily available and range from very simple and precise, and e directed towards improving performance and profit.

The most important question that must be answered in record keeping is: What data should be collected? Sometimes the data collected are never utilized. But keep in mind that keeping records and not using them is as bad as not keeping records at all.

Before making a record, recognition or identification of the animals is very important. Some of the methods than can be used in creating an identity are: tattoo, plastic ear tags, and ear piercing.

Ear-nothing – cutting the ears following an ear match guide using ear notcher is discourage because it inflict injury to the animal.

  • Origin
  • Number of pig
  • Starting date
  • Average starting weight
  • Piglet cost
  • Total feed consumption/daily feed intake
  • Price per kilogram of feed
  • Total weight of pig delivered + price per kg Live weight (LW)
  • Delivery date
  • Mortality

Technical Figures (based on 2000 data)

  • Average Daily Gain (ADG)
  • Feed Conversion Ration (FCR)
  • Average Feed Consumption/Pig/Day
  • Average Feed Cost/Kilogram Gain
  • Average Feed Cost/Pig/Day
  • Mortality
  • Feed Profit
  • Rounds Per Year

Average Daily Gain (ADG)

The average daily gain is expressed as the average daily increase in the Hveweight during the finishing period. ADG affects various aspects like:

  • Finishing period – the higher the ADG, the shorter the finishing period
  • Different costs e.g. housing, feeds, labor
  • Number of pigs sold per year

Factors affecting ADG

  • Quality of feed
  • Quantity of feed
  • Quantity/genotype of the pigs (genetic background)
  • Health condition of the pigs
  • Stage of finishing

Date needed for the computation of ADG:

  • Starting weight – this is usually at 15 to 20 kg LW
  • Market/end weight – usually from 80 to 90 kg LW
  • Finishing days

ADG = Total weight gained / Number of finishing days * 1000

where: Total weight gained = Market weight – starting weight

Sample calculation:

  • Number of finishers = 100 heads
  • Starting weight = 29 kg LW
  • Starting date = 29 June 2000
  • Market weight = 85 kg LW on the average
  • Market dates (1st batch) = 60 heads, 18 Oct 2000
  • Market dates (2nd batch) = 40 heads, 25 Oct 2000

ADG = (100 heads x 85kg LW) – (100 heads x 20 kg LW) / (60 heads x 112 days) + (40 heads x 119 days) x 1000

ADG = 566 grams/day

Based on standard figures, ADG should always be >= 600 grams/day to be acceptable.

Feed Conversion Ration (FCR)

The amount of feed given , from the start of finishing until the pigs are marketed is needed in the computation of FCR.

FCR measures the efficiency of feed utilization. It tells us how many kilograms of feed is needed for one kilogram gain in weight. If “normal concentrates” are given, the calculated FCR gives a good indication whether the fattening process is going satisfactorily or not.

Factors Affecting FCR

  • Quality of feed given
  • Quantity of feed given (restricted/ad libitum)
  • Breed of the pig
  • Management and health condition of the animals
  • Sex of the pig (male, female, castrate)
  • Stage of finishing

FCR = Total amount of feeds given / Total weight gained x 1000

source: International Training Center on Pig Husbandry (ITCPH), Marawoy, Lipa City

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