Mass Propagation and Management of Dipterocarps

Dipterocarps is chiefly tropical Asian trees with two-winged fruits; yield valuable woods and aromatic oils and resins. it’s a valuable Philippine timber tree. It has a tall perennial woody plant having a main trunk and branches forming a distinct elevated crown; includes both gymnosperms and angiosperms. Dipterocarps have long been considered as slow-growing hardwood species.

Dipterocarps are mainstays of Philippine forestry. Ninety percent of the country’s remaining forests are of the dipterocarp type. They are the main source of timber for the local wood-based industries and for export. They also contribute greatly to the economic, ecological, and social development of the country. The unregulated use dipterocarp forest, however, has caused the dwindling of this resource.

There is a need, therefore, to conserve, regenerate, protect, and properly manage dipterocarp forests to ensure a stable supply of timber. This publication integrates all available information on plantation establishment, harvesting, marketing, and management of natural dipterocarp forests in the Philippines.

Sources of Seeds and Other Propagules

Information sourcing/linkage establishment

Gather information regarding the location of fruiting dipterocarps as well as wildlings from the DENR field units/ERDS (or the old FORI experimental forests) and CENRO personnel like forest rangers and laborers. Even gatherers of minor forest products and natives living in the vicinities of forests may be the right persons who would know the possible sources. Requests related to collection activities should be done properly.

Collection of selected planting materials

1. Seeds – Phenotypic characteristics of the mother trees will serve as bases for seed selection. Avoid trees that are poorly developed, diseases and dying. Collect seeds from several parent trees to assure diversity among seedlings. Collection should cover a broad geography, including the environmental extremes at the edge of the range.

2. Wildlings – Places where fruiting occurred in the previous year should be revisited and the dominant wildlings should be selected for collection. Since phenotypic characteristics of trees can be considered as criteria for selection of good mother trees, collection should be confined, if possible, to straight-boled and balanced-canopy dipterocarps. Distances of trees where wildlings are to be collected should be about 100 m.

3. Clonal propagules

3.1 Propagules may be collected from:

  • healthy seedlings raised in the nursery;
  • wildlings in the forest whenever available; and
  • stockplants in hedge gardens.

3.2 In clonal propagation, consider the following:

  • proximity to the work area;
  • convenience during collection; and
  • known age and seed sources of stockplants.

Eventually, a hedge garden as source of propagules is more practical because the stockplants
are protected, and the maintenance assured.

Planting Stock Production

a. Seedling Technology

  1. Collection
  2. Seed sowing, seeding, care and maintenance
  3. Hardening

b. Care and Maintenance of Wildlings

  1. Selection of wildlings
  2. Packaging wildlings
  3. Pre-potting treatment
  4. Potting
  5. Preparation of recovery chamber
  6. Hardening area

c. Clonal propagation by cutting using the nonmist system

  1. Preparation of potting media
  2. Collection and preparation of cuttings
  3. Propagation system
  4. Maintenance
  5. Transplanting
  6. Hardening

d. Hedge garden establishment and management

  1. Site selection
  2. Establishment
  3. Maintenance
  4. Management of stockplants
  5. Harvesting of propagules

e. Pest and disease control

Download full manual at

Fore more information, contact:

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)
Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City
Telephone: (02) 929-6626
Email: [email protected]

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